Finally, Socrates arrives at knowledge of what is. Plato considered bravery to be one of the most important attributes a guardian should possess. And thus always educating other like men and leaving them behind in their place as guardians of the city, they go off to the Isles of the Blessed and dwell (540a-b). 504d1) leading toward being. This would insure that the Guardians would not become immoral and unjust. Glaucon reacts as if he has stepped out of the cave for the first time and does not know what to make of his bright surroundings. It is now clear that Socrates himself is down in the cave, somewhat against his will,2 attempting to help the interlocutors turn from the dark of ignorance to the light of knowledge and realize what is. Before, education consisted of telling false tales to children so that they would absorb the material and have correct opinions. I will use chapters 8 and 9 for my discussion. Socrates, recognizing that Glaucon is still attached to lavishness, goes along with his request to make the city more luxurious. Early in the dialogue, Socrates suggests that the idea of justice should be sought first in a large city, for it is there that it will be most visible, and then in individuals (369a). Furthermore, he exploits the power of playful images and poetry to convey his ideas. Although Socrates says potential guardians must have a certain disposition, the impressionability of the ideal nature suggests that they must only be bodily suited to the physical aspects of the job since they will be instilled with the other necessary qualities through education. Again, Socrates insists that education in philosophy is something to be loved and will result in the satisfaction of eros. Moreover, children are expected to accept whatever they are told with little free-thought. Ideal Characteristics of Plato’s Guardians The characterisitics of the ideal guardian is summarized in those words by Socrates in the second book of the Republic : “[H]e who is to be a really good and noble guardian of the State will require to unite in himself philosophy and spirit and swiftness and strength. As the sun allows our eyes to use their existing capacity to see, the good allows our existing intellect to know. Socrates, however, still recognizes the danger of the full truth. In conclusion, I feel that Plato’s take on education is well developed. Physical training must be carefully regulated for the moment the guardian is a child until he is an adult. The heroes told in stories should be brave, unafraid of death, and are not dependent on others. If a God were perfect and good then he would not be affected by outside influences and would be able to maintain his perfection. Latest education news, comment and analysis on schools, colleges, universities, further and higher education and teaching from the Guardian, the world's leading liberal voice This paper will first examine the dialogue's two explicit accounts of education, addressing both their similarities and differences. (Remember, he operated his own school at Athens!) Outside these ages, intercourse is to … Although Plato's Republic is best known for its definitive defense of justice, it also includes an equally powerful defense of philosophical education. Proving that he is not against poetry as much as he seemed in the first account of education, Socrates uses the poetic images of the sun, the cave, and Er to educate his pupils. The second part of education would be dramatic recitation. The guardians must be lovers of learning like "noble puppies" who determine what is familiar and foreign by "knowledge and ignorance" (376 b). Moreover, a proper training in this kind makes a man quick to perceive any defect or ugliness in art and nature” (chapter 9, page 90). Therefore, the correct style of narrative for both guardians and poets is mostly non-imitative, but allows for some imitation of good men (396d). Education Essay website will help you with writing your Education essays, research papers, term papers and dissertations on Education topics. We'll have an opportunity to consider his notions about higher education later, but his plan for the elementary education of guardians for the ideal state appears in Book III. After all, shadows (or noble lies) capture part of the truth, whether it is physical or moral, and can be used to educate people about what lies beyond the cave, either outside the city's laws or in life after death. From what Socrates says here, it seems as if the natures with which children are born matter less than their education; anyone can be a philosopher with the right training.1 Also, unlike the first education, the purpose of the philosopher-kings' education is to eventually teach children how to distinguish right from wrong by showing them the whole truth. Although Socrates found it necessary to drag Glaucon out of the cave and into the light using images, Socrates still prefers that his students do not simply accept the truth, but come to it on their own. Literature with topics such as Gods against Gods and misdeeds were untruthful. Although education is not meant to simply bolster convention as in the first account of education, education is also not meant to undermine convention. (Republic 454d) Thus, Plato maintained that prospective guardians, both male and female, should receive the same education and be assigned to the same vital functions within the society. There are certain aspects such as censorship and a changing God that I felt a certain way about before I read this book, but now feel differently. With regards to censorship, I always felt that any form of censorship was wrong. When a man tries by discussion--by means of argument without the use of any of the sense--to attain to each thing itself that which is and doesn't give up before he grasps by intellection itself that which is good itself, he comes to the very end of the intelligible realm just as that other man was then at the end of the visible (532b). I thought about my religion, which is Catholicism, and their view on God holding other forms. The good is beyond perceived reality and is hard to see, but once the good is understood, it is clear that it "is the cause of all that is right and fair in everything," and must be possessed and understood by prudent rulers (517c). Older, educated men, however, "will discuss and consider the truth rather than the one who plays and contradicts for the sake of the game" (539d). The Guardian - Back to home. This would tie in with literature because stories are conveyed. Simply by aiming for true knowledge, this education is more philosophical and Socratic than the first. The answer, Plato believed, was to rely upon the value of a good education. Socrates' sharing in the educational experience is an effective pedagogical method that benefits both the student and the teacher. According to Socrates, virtue is knowledge. What is this subject? This will insure that theGuardians will be brave. Plato felt that most tales were unsatisfactory because of their content and must be supervised. Thus, the young must not be allowed to toy with debate because they will undoubtedly misuse the art of dialectics, leading to the dissolution of their beliefs and the defamation of philosophy. Basically it was developed around ones wisdom. The notion that all private interests be abolished within the guardian class would also leave guardians with little drive to excel. Socrates' ludicrous examples, different images, and persistent questioning are clearly intended to help guide his pupils upward through the levels of reality to the highest, truest knowledge of what is. The ability to know is always within man--never faltering, but useful only depending on whether it is focused on the truth (518e). The modes that express sorrow, drunkenness, effeminacy, and inactivity would have to be discarded. Given the dramatic context of the dialogue (that Socrates is educating the interlocutors), I would assume that he believes more in the importance of education rather than that of nature. The primary object of education, Plato says, is to turn the eye, which the soul already possesses, to the light. But above all, they must love hard work. Socrates then says that the preference for non-imitative poets excludes the most loved and entertaining poets from the city (397e-398a), in favor of more austere and less-pleasing poets. The hero Achilles must be absent from all tales, because children cannot see lamenting or gross displays of immoderate emotion glorified for fear they will adopt the practices as their own (388). Socrates never resolves the tension between the importance of nature and education for the development of philosopher-kings, which makes it difficult to understand which is most important. Additionally, tales cannot include displays of laughter (389a). Gymnastics is mainly responsible for preventing illness and the need for medicine in the city. Plato feels that certain aspects of theology would have to be censored such as heaven being responsible for everything, both good and evil. Socrates describes a cave in which humans are chained from birth facing a wall. 2 His scheme of education is a lifelong procedure. Socrates does not advocate a complicated gymnastic regimen; instead, he says that a good soul produces a good body, and that a healthy intellect ensures a healthy body (403d-e). Tales cannot depict fighting among the gods and, further, children must actively be told that citizens have never been angry with one another (378c). When Socrates introduces the cave analogy, one cannot help recognizing the similarities between it and his own actions in the dialogue. Education in music for the soul and gymnastics for the body, Socrates says, is the way to shape the guardians' character correctly and thereby prevent them from terrorizing the citizens. Socrates asserts that if someone were to drag him "away from there by force along the rough, steep, upward way, and didn't let him go before he had dragged him out into the light of the sun" (516a), the prisoner would fight and be resentful, and even then, would not be able to see everything at once. Perhaps he emphasizes the importance of a certain nature to add an aura of prestige to education. After addressing the appropriate content of tales, Socrates discusses whether simple or imitative narrative should be used by poets and guardians. He follows the path of the divided line, of which the "first [is] knowledge, the second thought, the third trust, and the fourth imagination" (534a). Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of The Republic and what it means. Following his discussion of medicine, Socrates discusses the appropriate character of judges. But once he focuses on what is, he will be happier than ever before and will never want to return to the cave (516e-c). If we were too spirited, we would become overly aggressive. Thus, potential philosopher-kings must receive a new form of education that will identify, test, and refine their philosophical natures. The guardians that are undergoing this rigorous form of education do not study mathematics for practical purposes. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. I now feel that censorship is sometimes needed after reading Plato’s views on censorship. At age twenty, gymnastic education will cease and the best students will be chosen to learn an overview of their studies and how they interrelate with each other and the good. The importance of knowing what is stands out in sharp contrast to the earlier unfounded opinions of the guardians. Plato states, “Rhythm and harmony sink deep into the recesses of the soul and take the strongest hold there, bringing that grace of body and mind which is only to be found in one who is brought up in the right way. If the appetitive component is too strong, we would have an unhealthy soul with too much greed and lust. First he will describe the most minimal state imaginable (one where only the most basic needs are met). In the second account of education, Socrates says that the best education should be more like play than work (536d). Socrates says. Whereas Glaucon accepted the first account of education because he himself sparked the discussion of the luxurious city, he is now perplexed by the image of the cave. The country must then take land from neighboring countries in order to be able to accommodate all of the citizens. The previous account of education, however, is incomplete because gymnastics and music only teach habits by example (521e-522b). Finally, it seems as though Socrates is being genuine. Socrates insists that recipients of an education in mathematics and dialectics must have a suitable nature. Separating gods from men prevents poetic accounts of the gods from being used as a model for human behavior. The topic of education first arises in the book when Glaucon opposes the plain lifestyle required in Socrates' city. In order for there to be a just state, there must be a balance between the different types of people, namely; reason dominated, spirit dominated and appetite dominated people. Story telling is the earliest form of education a child receives from their mothers or other caregivers. It is the most beautiful educational treatise ever written.”[51] Plato sought in the Republic to encourage an education that orients the human soul towards the good by teaching them about the nature of justice. Remarkably, in the guardian's education, no one, not even a judge, was permitted exposure to the truth at this young an age. The philosopher's descent into the cave hearkens back the first line of the book, "I went down to the Piraeus yesterday with Glaucon" (327a). Interestingly, Plato imitates undesirable individuals as well as good (an imitation that Socrates condemns); however, in keeping with Socratic poetry, the dialogue has an interminably good message and teaches men how to be virtuous philosophers both in life and beyond. Also, because the dialogue is meant to be a defense of philosophy and an apology of Socrates, the education of real philosophers seems more in tune with the theme of the book than the education of "noble-puppy" guardians. Suitable tales must glorify and encourage moderation; they must display obedience to superiors and temperance in drinking, eating, sex (389e), and love of money and possessions (390e). First, turns Glaucon onto the good by introducing it in a mysterious, attractive way. Instead, the two accounts of education must be patched together and evaluated in relation to each other and the dramatic context of the dialogue in order to discover Socrates' preferred method of education. He says. Glaucon says, "Apollo, what a demonic excess…don't leave even the slightest thing aside" (509c). Only simple instruments such as the lyre, cither, and pipe are permitted (399d). Using the power of images, Socrates evokes an analogy of the obscure good and the familiar sun. I… A summary of Part X (Section5) in Plato's The Republic. Tales must be strictly censored because young children are malleable and absorb all to which they are exposed. "The same education which makes a man a good guardian will make a woman a good guardian; for their original nature is the same." Censorship is needed for children as Plato says. ... had been running their “inclusive music education programme” Roadworks, using genres such as drill to engage young people in … Changes sometimes have to be made to literature and music in order to produce a noble warrior. Not only does Socrates (Plato's mouthpiece in the dialogue) posit two differing visions of education (the first is the education of the warrior guardians and the second is the philosopher-kings' education), but he also provides a more subtle account of education through the pedagogical method he uses with Glaucon and Adeimantus. Plato’s view on a God who does not change form is also something I now agree on. Caught up in the fun of imagining the ideal city, Glaucon cannot fathom that it would be as austere as Socrates suggests and desires that it be more luxurious. Interestingly, although Socrates includes three of the four main virtues (courage, moderation, and justice) among the important lessons of appropriate tales, wisdom is absent. Plato divides his just society into three classes: the producers, the auxiliaries, and the guardians. Stories of heroes that are to be told should only consist of heroes who hold the same values and characteristics, which the Guardians should have. Finally, at the age of fifty, those who have excelled in everything will perceive the good and will alternate philosophizing and ruling the city. Socrates says of calculation, "It leads the soul powerfully upward and compels it to discuss numbers themselves" (525d). Shouldn’t the The topic I am going to discuss is the topic of Education. By hearing such tales, youths will learn the importance of unity and will be disinclined to fight amongst themselves when they are grown. Socrates says, "Imitations, if they are practiced continually from youth onwards, become established as habits and nature, in body and sounds and in thought" (395d). The second part of education would be dramatic recitation. Despite slightly relinquishing control, Socrates still subtly guides Glaucon and Adeimantus toward the truth by making the luxurious city and its guardians' education ludicrous. Plato, the Greek philosopher, considered music special and devotes broadened attention to the subject in his works Republic and in Laws. Socrates now acknowledges that the nature necessary in philosopher-kings is rare. The tales deemed unfit for a child to hear would be discarded. Hades should be praised so that the warriors will not fear death; children should grow up fearing slavery more than death (386c). This time, Glaucon takes the cue and says, "Just like a sculptor, Socrates, you have produced ruling men who are wholly fair" (540c). Plato simply states here that dirges, laments, modes of sorrow or softness, and any musical setting implying drunkenness, effeminacy, and inactivity are to be kept from the Guardians in training. Further, Socrates says it is better that the philosopher-kings rule unenthusiastically or else they will become greedy for power which leads to tyranny (520d). Instead, knowledge of "the good" must be absolute; Socrates says, "When it comes to good things, no one is satisfied with what is opined to be so but each seeks the things that are" (505d). Socrates' pedagogical approach with the interlocutors corresponds closely with his vision of the education of the philosopher-kings--an overlap which suggests that the allegory of the cave is representative of true Socratic education. Plato believed that literature must contain stories of truth and the divine nature of humans, which is good. After teaching imagination, Socrates moves onto trust by introducing an education that requires rulers to blindly trust the educative tales they are told. The Guardians will have to be both fierce and gentle. One of Socrates’ final commandments regarding the living arrangements of the guardian class is that children, born from the couplings held during the festivals, shall be considered children of the entire community, with no children knowing the identity of their parents, and vice-versa (Plato 92). Not only is mathematics useful for practical matters, but its abstractness causes students to exercise their intellect and ask questions about what really is. Only modes that express traits a guardian should hold will be left uncensored. Hesiod was a famous Greek poet. Behind them, puppet-masters carry figurines which cast shadows on the wall in front of the prisoners. Furthermore, gods cannot be said to punish (unless it is for the punished person's benefit), change shape/form, or lie. Rhythm and harmony touch the soul directly, so if children are surrounded by tales of goodness and never exposed to bad tales, like "noble puppies" they will learn to love what they know (goodness and justice) and hate what they do not know (injustice) (401d-e). Unlike the philosopher-kings appearing later in the book, these philosophically natured guardians approve only of that with which they are already familiar and they attack whatever is new. Plato believed that these false tales that talked about the faults of Gods and heroes would mold children. If children only learn about what is good then they will be able to find the divine nature in themselves. Guardian. Ideal Characteristics of Plato’s Guardians The characterisitics of the ideal guardian is summarized in those words by Socrates in the second book of the Republic : “[H]e who is to be a really good and noble guardian of the State will require to unite in himself philosophy and spirit and swiftness and strength. The man who makes the finest mixture of gymnastic with music and brings them to his soul in the most proper measure is the one of whom we would most correctly say that he is the most perfectly musical and well harmonized (412a). Instead, recipients of a philosophical education are indebted to the city and must use their knowledge to make the cave/city as enlightened as possible without destroying it. Instead, children must look solely to human guardians and the law for guidance. I first read this book two years ago. A progressive education that teaches men to use their existing capacity for knowledge is what Socrates intends for the philosopher-kings. The warriors must obey the rulers. It would be from the elite of the auxiliaries that a philosopher guardian would emerge, as they had worked their way through the education and training. They must be steady, courageous, good looking, noble, tough, and quick learners (355). Socrates says. The grown up people of guardian class will receive the education of science and philosophy. In order to discuss the education of the guardians, I need to talk about who the guardians are and why they are needed. This means that the Guardian can distinguish the good from the ugly. It was influential in the Roman Empire and was revived in European political thought in the age of absolutist monarchs. But unlike the compulsory nature of the earlier education, the philosopher-kings' education must be presented first as voluntary play. Furthermore, if he did try to return to the cave and help the other prisoners, they would hate him, calling him corrupt and delusional because their reality is still limited to the shadows in the cave (517a). The guardians are responsible for ruling the city. Never telling them what to think, Socrates helps them realize their own, natural potential. Education in music (which includes speeches) begins with the telling of tales in the earliest years of childhood because that is when people are most pliable. They show unjust men as happy, just men as unhappy, injustice as profitable, and justice as being someone else's good and one's own loss. Socrates claims, "A young thing can't judge what is hidden sense and what is not; but what he takes into his opinions at that age has a tendency to become hard to eradicate and unchangeable" (378d). No longer is Glaucon averse to the austere lifestyle of the guardians, because now the guardians are possessors of the most illustrious power. Socrates says that the sun, like the good, illuminates the true "ideas" behind things. This religion believes in apparitions and symbols. Most existing stories, Socrates claims, send inappropriate messages and must be outlawed. He says that philosopher-kings must have a certain nature, but then says the capacity to see the good and be educated is in all. The first account of education can be read in light of this ideal. Plato felt that one was put into a social group by their own development of their rational intellects. Instead, his eyes would adjust slowly. Hesiod. Children must be told that the gods are not the cause of all things, only those which are good and just (380c). They must be fierce in order to go to war or ward off invasion. Modes that express bravery, endurance, peacefulness, and success would be considered meaningful. Education would play a major role in deciding who would be in what class. The Guardians are picked even before they can acquire language so that they can easily be molded into the perfect warriors. When he can distinguish ugliness he will be able to ignore it and be able to maintain his divine nature. After convincing Glaucon that escaping the cave and becoming a philosopher is advantageous, Socrates returns to more practical political matters. Having completed the discussion of music, Socrates moves onto gymnastic education. Socrates shows him that with the proper education, a life of noble virtue, including "moderation, courage, liberality, and magnificence" (402c) but excluding sex and excessive pleasure, will be fulfilling. Consequently, it was their occupation to enact the decisions made by the ruling class. Education is not what the professions of certain men assert it to be. Unlike in the first account when Socrates explicitly says that moderation excludes the possibility of lusty pleasure (402e), now Socrates paints the good as though it were as appealing as sex, making Glaucon willing to do anything to obtain the good. When told that his experience in the cave was not entirely real, he would rebel--and not without reason (515d). 1 Plato’s scheme of education was for the guardian class other classes like peasant and artisan were not covered. Socrates says that those fit for a guardian's education must by nature be "philosophic, spirited, swift, and strong" (376 c). Therefore, by eating and drinking moderately and undertaking a simple physical exercise plan from youth, the body will be as fit as is needed. Even though Socrates advocates escaping the cave and learning what is through philosophy, he never dismisses the importance of convention. The primary education the Guardians is started after they have been chosen. For the most part, each one spends his time in philosophy, but when his turn comes, he drudges in politics and rules for the city's sake, not as though he were doing a thing that is fine, but one that is necessary. Plato says that Guardians would fear God if they thought that God could take on any form in order to deceive them. The new importance of truth and what is also contrasts with the first account's use of lies in educating the guardians. 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plato guardian education

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